วันพุธที่ 7 มีนาคม พ.ศ. 2555

รายชื่อกิริยาวลีและคำนิยาม Phrasal Verbs & Definitions ( A-B )

1. Phrasal Verbs A-B(100)
abide by
To accept and obey the law, rule, etc., e.g. We have to abide by the law even if we don’t agree with it.

accede to
To reluctantly agree to a demand, etc.

act … out
To perform a past event;

To express one’s feelings through one’s behaviour.

act up
(Children) to behave badly.

(Machine, etc.) Does not work in the way it should.

add … in
To include something with something else.

add … on
To enlarge something, especially a building, e.g. They added on an extension to the museum to house the fossil collection.

add to
To increase the amount, cost, or degree of something.

add up
To increase by small amounts to reach a total.

To calculate the total of something, e.g. to add up one’s points, marks, scores, etc.

add up to
To total up.

To combine small amounts to find out the total, e.g. When the service charges are taken in, the bill adds up to an amount greater than expected.

adhere to
To conduct oneself in accordance to a particular rule, etc.

admit of
To accept something as capable of existing or happening.

agree with
To have the same view as someone else.

aim at
To try to achieve an outcome, e.g. She aims at losing 10 kg by the end of the year.

aim … at
To point something such as a weapon, camera, etc. at a target, e.g. He aims his camera at his group of friends.

To design something for a specific class or group of people, e.g. The new radio station aims most of its programs at a teenage audience.

allow for
To consider all factors involved so the problem can be resolved, e.g. If we allow for inevitable wastage, the amount of material needed will be greater to meet the production quota.

allow of
To show that something is likely

allude to
To refer to someone or something

amount to
To equal to something, e.g. The loss through pilferage amounts to at least 3 % of production cost.

To have same effect as something else, e.g. Her remark amounts to an insult.

angle for
To request something in an indirect way, e.g. Quite obviously, he’s angling for a date with her.

answer for
To explain one’s wrong deed or to explain on behalf of someone, e.g. The coach must answer for the team’s poor performance.

answer to
To explain something, especially having done something wrong, to someone, e.g. He answers directly to the Chief Engineer.

appertain to
To belong to or concern something

arse around/about
To waste time, e.g. He has been warned not to arse about in the park.

ascribe … to
To accept that an event comes about because of someone or something, e.g. They ascribe the high unemployment rate to the government’s mismanagement of the economy.

ask … for
To say that one wants something, e.g. We asked at the counter for free gift vouchers but got none because we have not spent enough.

To show something as requested, e.g. I was asked for my identity card which I had not brought along, so I was not allowed into the office.

ask … out
To invite someone out, e.g. This is the tenth and maybe last time I’ll ask her out after nine unsuccessful attempts.

attend to
To deal with something or help someone, e.g. He had to attend to more emergency cases today than any other days.

attribute to
To say a situation is caused by something, e.g. The residents attribute the increase in burglary cases to lack of regular patrol of the streets by the police.

To say that someone is responsible for something, e.g. They attribute the short stories to him without having any clear evidence that he wrote them.

average out
To calculate the usual number of times a thing happens.

awake to
To be aware of something and its possible effects, e.g. People are starting to awake to the therapeutic value of herbs.

awaken … to
To make someone aware of something and its consequences.

back away
To move backwards;

To become uninterested or cease participation in something.

back down
To concede defeat or stop being confrontational, e.g. The workers planned to go on strike, but backed down when the employers threaten to sake them.

back off
To move away from someone or something, usually because of danger or to avoid injury, e.g. He was warned to back off, but he refused and a fight ensued.

back onto
(Building, etc.) To have its back facing a particular area.

back up
To make a copy of data on a computer program or disc., e.g. He has cultivated a good habit of backing up every piece of work he does.

back … up
To provide evidence to support one’s statement, claim, etc., e.g. Jack backed up his claim of winning the jackpot by producing a photocopy of his cheque for the winning amount.

To move or move a vehicle in the reverse direction, e.g. I backed up my car a little in the parking lot between two cars so we could get out./It was a narrow walkway, so we had to back up a bit to let other people pass by.

To support someone in a situation by agreeing with them or doing something to help them, e.g. He is doing it not just for himself, so I’ll back him up.

bag … up
To put small items into bags.

bail out
To deposit money for someone to be out of prison while awaiting court trial.

To help someone or a financial institution out of financial problem by providing financial help.

ball … up
To complicate matters.

band together
To unite in order to achieve something.

bandy … about
To flaunt or say something repeatedly with intention to impress.

bang on
To talk incessantly in a boring manner.

bang … out
To sing a song or play a tune loudly and badly.

bang … up
To wreck something.

bank on
To rely on someone or something to produce an outcome.

bargain for
To be prepared for something adverse that may happen to one’s plan.

barge in
To go or dash in uninvited.

barge in on
To interrupt rudely.

base … on/upon
To use something as basis for development of a course of action.

bash away at
To continue working or hitting hard at something.

bash on
To persist in an activity or process in order to complete something.

bat … around
To engage in a discussion about something.

bawl … out
To scold someone for the wrong they have done.

bear down
To appear threatening to someone in the way one behaves.

bear … down
To apply pressure on something.

bear … out
To deal successfully with a difficult person or something.

To use something to testify to the existence or truth of something else.

bear up
To be undaunted by adverse conditions.

bear with
To ask someone to be patient while you are engaged with something. To exercise patience with a difficult person.

beat down
(Sunlight, rain, etc.) To come down in large quantity.

beat … down
To bargain for or persuade someone to offer a lower price.

beat off
To frighten or drive someone or something away.

beat out
To extinguish a fire by beating;

To beat out a rhythm on a drum.

beat … out
To defeat a competition rival.

beat up
To cause injury to someone by physical assault, e.g. Members of the public caught up with the pickpocket and beat him up until he pleaded for mercy.

beaver away
To be doing some difficult, tiring work.

bed down
To make person or an animal comfortable for the night.

beef … up
To make something better, e.g. Control in the prison was beefed up after the riot.

beg off
To say you cannot do something as agreed.

believe in
To feel sure or accept that something exists, either good or bad, e.g. He just doesn’t believe in Nessie.

To feel someone can be trusted, e.g. The children always believe in their father despite adverse rumours being spread about him.

To have one’s views about something, e.g. We believe in the equality of the sexes in the workplace.

belly out
To become larger, greater or full.

belong to
To be the property or a member of a group or organization.

belt … out
To sing out loud or play a loud tune from a musical instrument, e.g. The band was belting out all my favourites.

belt up
To instruct someone bluntly to keep quiet.

bind ... over
To restrain someone from causing trouble under threat of legal punishment.

bite back
To retaliate.

bite into
To cut against a surface.

To start using up something, especially one’s personal savings.

bite … off
To use the teeth to cut off a piece from a main part, e.g. He bit off a piece of a pizza and strangely spat it out.

black out
To faint, e.g. He blacks out whenever he sees too much blood.

(City, etc.) To turn off all the lights in a wide area.

blank out
To cover or erase something so it cannot be seen or recall.

blast off
(Rocket, etc.) To leave the ground.

blend in
To mix or combine something with its surrounding.

block in/out
To make a drawing of something that gives a general idea but is not exact.

block … off
To completely close a place such as a road, etc.

block … out
To prevent light passing through.

To erase, especially a bitter memory.

blot … out
To cover or hide something completely.

blot … up
To wipe surface dry with a cloth or other absorbent material.

blow away
To shoot someone to death.

To be carried away by the wind, e.g. I put some comic books outside and the wind blew away a couple of them into the drain.

blow down
To cause something to drop on the ground, usually by the wind.

blow in
To blow air into something with our mouth.

blow off
To treat someone or something as unimportant, e.g. He blew off his overseas assignments by not accepting them.

blow … out
To put out a flame by blowing, e.g. A strong gust of wind blew out all the candles in the temple when the keeper opened a window.

(Car) to blow a tyre, e.g. He just couldn’t figure out what caused a tyre of his car to blow out.

To cease to function, e.g. An electric bulb blew out suddenly while I was reading.

(Storm) to come to an end, e.g. After a few hours the storm blew itself out.

(Electricity) to suddenly stop working, e.g. The fuse of a piece of electrical equipment blows out causing it to stop working.

To destroy or damage something, e.g. The explosion blew the shelves right out of the wall.

blow up
To be destroyed by an explosion, e.g. A bomb planted by a saboteur exploded, blowing up a power station.

To make something bigger by forcing air into it, e.g. He blew up a balloon but it couldn’t get bigger because it has a tiny hole.

To make a photograph, picture, etc. larger, e.g. She blew her photograph up so that the mole on her left cheek is more noticeable.

To become very angry with someone or something, e.g. Jill’s father immediately blew up when he read the amount on the telephone bill.

blurt … out
To say something suddenly without thinking.

board … out
To pay and arrange for an animal to stay with someone.

board … up
To cover, e.g. a window,  with wooden boards

bog down
To be too deeply involved in something to have time to do other thing.

bog off
To tell someone to go away.

boil away
To heat liquid so much until it evaporates.

boil down
To reduce the quantity of food or liquid due to cooking.

To edit information so that unnecessary detail is not included.

boil down to
To be concerned only with the significant or essential element, e.g. Her wish to continue living with him despite his abusive behaviour boils down to her fear of loneliness.

boil over
To overflow.

boil up
To start losing one’s temper.

bomb … out
To completely destroy a structure.

bone up
To study hard for an examination.

book in
To check in a hotel.

book … on
To make arrangements for someone to travel on a plane or train.

boot … out
To dismiss or expel someone, especially from a job or organization.

boot up
To get a computer ready for use.

border on
To be on the verge of, especially on the verge of tears.

bottle out
To withdraw suddenly from an activity you are engaged in.

bottle … up
To hide one’s feelings.

bottom out
To stop getting worse, especially prices.

bounce back
To get better or recover, especially from bad times.

bow down
To lower your head slightly by bending top part of body forward to show respect.

bow out
To withdraw from an activity, etc. which one has been engaged in for a long time.

bow to
To accede to a request or demand.

bowl along
To move very quickly, especially in a vehicle.

bowl … out
To accidentally knock someone down while dashing.

box … in
To feel you cannot act or move freely.

box … off
To separate a smaller area from a larger one by partitioning or erecting walls around it.

branch off
(Road, river, etc.) to separate from another and go in a different direction.

To talk something else which is not related to what is being discussed, conversed, etc.

brave … out
To deal bravely with something that causes fear or problem.

brazen … out
To deal confidently with a difficult or embarrassing situation.

break away
To leave a group or political party, usually due to disagreement, to form their own.

break down
To cry, e.g. He broke down instantly when informed that his terminally ill mother had passed away in the hospital.

To gain entry, e.g. Firemen had to break the door down to rescue an elderly occupant from the fire.

(Vehicle, machine, etc.) To stop working, e.g. A couple of cars broke down in the midst of a traffic jam, aggravating the situation.

(Negotiation) to fail, e.g. The negotiation for the exchange of prisoners broke down because one side remains uncompromising in its demands.

(Total amount) to separate into individual items or amounts.

break for
To leave whatever you are doing for lunch, etc.

break in/into
To forcibly enter a place such as a building for an illegal purpose, e.g. Thieves broke into an office building by breaking a window.

break off
To discontinue a relationship, diplomatic relations, etc., e.g. Both countries broke off diplomatic relations after one accused the other’s embassy staff of involvement in espionage.

To separate, especially a piece from a larger one, e.g. He broke off a piece of bun and threw it into a pond to feed the fishes.

break out 
To escape from a place, e.g. After he broke out of jail once, he was transferred to a maximum security prison.

break through
To forcibly go through something, etc., e.g. The burglars broke through a wall to gain entry to the bank safe.

break up
To stop a fight, e.g. They use pails and buckets full of water, and hose to splash and spray water to break up a fight between two dogs.

To separate a gathering, e.g. Police appeared as usual to break up a peaceful demonstration as expected.

To end a romantic relationship, e.g. Their relationship broke up after they accused each other of being selfish.

To cause something to separate into many small pieces, e.g. Someone broke my mug up, but no one owns up.

breathe in
To take in air; to inhale.

breathe out
To send air out from the lungs

breeze through
To finish or complete something easily, e.g. a task.

brew up
To make a drink of tea.

brick … off
To separate an area from a bigger one by building a wall of bricks.

brick … up
To fill or close a space by building a wall of bricks in it.

brighten up
(Sky) to become brighter.

brighten … up
To make something more beautiful or colourful.

brim over
(A box, container, etc.) to be overfilled until it cannot be covered.

bring about
To cause something to happen, or introduce new ideas.

bring around
To make someone regain consciousness.

To persuade someone to agree.

bring back
To revive something that was used previously, e.g. More and more people are clamouring for capital punishment to be brought back.

To return with something, especially from abroad or shop, e.g. He went to a pet shop and brought back a couple of terrapins.

To make one remember or recall something, e.g. Listening to these songs brings back fond memories.

bring … down
To bring bird, plane, etc. down by shooting.

To stop a government from continuing,

To bring anything high up such as a kite, helicopter, etc. down to the ground.

bring ... down on
To cause something bad to happen to someone, especially financial ruin.

bring … forth
To display something or make it visible.

bring … forward
To make something happen sooner rather than later.

bring in
To receive an income or earning, e.g. He works for a large company and brings in a handsome salary.

To include or invite someone to participate in a discussion, etc.           

To involve someone in something.

bring ... on/upon
To cause something bad to happen to someone, e.g. heavy rain had brought on landslides.

bring out
To produce something;

To make a person display his best/worst quality.

bring over
To move someone or something from where they are to where one is, e.g. She is bringing her sister over tonight for a game of cards.

bring ... through
To help someone endure a difficult period of time.

bring ... together
To assemble two or more people for a particular purpose.

bring ... up
To raise a question, subject, etc. at a meeting.

To care for a child until he/she is a grown-up.

bristle with
To have a lot of or be full of something.

broaden out
To become wider.

bruit … abroad
To spread a report or rumour widely.

brush … aside
To deliberately ignore something.

brush … down
To clean clothes or pet animals with a bush.

brush … off
To refuse to consider someone’s idea, opinion, etc. by ignoring them or passing unkind remark, e.g. The police head brushed the whole thing off when informed that some people are planning a bank robbery right in the city centre.

brush up on
To quickly reread work done previously that one has forgotten or to improve one’s knowledge, or to practise and improve on an activity, e.g. I think I’d better brush up on my singing and resume my singing career.

buck for
To attempt at achieving something.

buck up
To make or become more cheerful.

bucket down
To rain heavily.

build … in/into
To make or include something as a permanent part of something else, e.g. He had a safe built into the wall of his house.

build on
To add an extension to a building in order to enlarge it.

To improve on something or carry out more development on it

bulk … out
To treat a product so that it appears bigger or its quantity appears greater than it is.

bum around/about
To laze about doing nothing.

bump into
To meet someone you know by chance, e.g. I found it amazing when I bumped into my neighbour in a shopping centre despite it being packed to capacity.

To accidentally knock into someone or something, e.g. I hurried round the corner of a corridor and accidentally bumped into a woman carrying drinks on a tray, knocking them all over the floor.

bump … off
To murder someone.

bump … up
To make something larger or appear to be larger.

bundle … off
To send someone somewhere in a hurry, e.g. He was handcuffed and bundled off in a police car.

bundle up
To dress in warm clothes.

To tie things together to form a bundle.

bung … up
To block something up such as putting something in a hole.

bunk off
To leave early and secretly from a place such as school or work.

burn away
To be completely destroyed or greatly damaged by fire, e.g. The fire burned away all his valuable personal possessions.

burn down
To be destroyed by fire, e.g. The whole factory was burned down after an explosion.

(Fire) to become weaker, e.g. The fire burns down as its flame has become weaker and produced less heat.

burn ... off
To get rid of something by burning it, e.g. She burnt off all his photos.

burn out
To become exhausted through overwork, e.g. He burned himself out by working three full days with very little rest and sleep.

To be partially destroyed by fire, e.g. The fire burnt out the kitchen and the adjoining bedroom.

(Fire) to stop burning, e.g. After three hours, the fire burnt itself out.

burn up
To be completely destroyed by fire or physical exercises, etc. e.g. The whole building was completely burned up; physical exercises burn up fat, calories, etc.

burn ... up
To make someone very angry, e.g. It really burned her up when the boss disapproved her application for a long leave.

be burning with
To be entirely possessed by (a desire or emotion).

burst in on/upon
To interrupt something at an embarrassing moment.

burst into
To intrude into a place suddenly without thinking.

To suddenly start to cry or burn, e.g. burst into tears; burst into flames.

To appear suddenly in a location.

burst onto
To explode outward.

burst out
To suddenly begin to cry, laugh, or say something in an assertive manner, e.g. The audience burst out laughing when the clown’s trousers suddenly dropped revealing a pair of yellow shorts with red polka dots.

bust out
To escape from a place, especially a prison.

bust up
To separate as lovers, partners, friends etc;

bust … up
To disrupt something or prevent it from continuing; to damage or break up something.

butt in
To interrupt or intrude rudely on a conversation or activity, e.g. Whenever Jack talked to a girl at the party, Jill would butt in.

butt out
To tell someone to stop interfering.

butter … up
To flatter someone.

buy in
To buy something in bulk.

buy … in
To withdraw something at auction because it fails to reach the reserve price.

buy into
To make partial purchase of a business with aim to control it; to accept or believe an idea.

buy … off
To pay someone money to stop them causing trouble or threatening you.

buy … out
To pay someone to give up ownership, interest, or share of a business.

buy up
To pay for one’s release from the armed services.

To buy as much and as quickly as you can of something.