( 15) GERUNDS and PRESENT PARTICIPLES
Gerund is a word that functions as a noun. It is derived by adding ‘–ing’ to the end of a verb (jog), e.g. “Jogging is a good way of exercising”.
A present participle is formed by adding ‘-ing’ to the verb, as in ‘reading’., e.g. “He may be reading the newspaper now”.
A gerund is used:
· as the subject of the sentence.
Example: Waiting for a bus can take a long time.
· as the object of a verb.
Example: “Will you stop crying?”
· as a verbal noun, i.e. as a verb doing the work of a noun.
Example: Her scolding frightened her children.
· after a verb.
Example: The gate needs repainting.
· after “busy”.
Example: She is busy cooking for dinner.
· with a preposition.
Example: We are tired after walking for two hours.
· after a phrasal verb.
Example: If we carry on working, we can complete it today.
A present participle is used:
· immediately after a subject to which it refers.
Example: People driving in the rain have to drive carefully.
· after a verb.
Example: He went fishing with his friends.
· after a noun. It tells us what a person or thing is doing.
Example: She heard them talking about her.
Example: I saw a rock rolling down the hill.
· as an adjective.
Example: That twinkling star is much brighter than the rest.
· to show that a person is doing two things at the same time.
Example: He is sitting outside the house, watching people pass by.
· to form the continuous tense.
Example: He is washing his car.
· when one action is followed by another.
Example: Walking on the beach, he threw a ball to his friend.